Category Archives: Uncategorized

Forgetting World War I

I would like to believe that the current museum exhibits at the New-York Historical Society and the Metropolitan Museum of Art would keep World War I in our minds, but, sadly, we’ve forgotten.  Its veterans are dead. Monuments ignored.  Other wars, especially World War II, loom larger in our imaginations and on screen.   The tragedy of forgetting World War I affects our understanding of world events today, as so many are inextricably linked to events we struggle to understand today.

When we forget World War I, we forget that we stand on its corpses today.

Why should we remember this war from a hundred years ago?  If you are Turkish, Greek or Armenian, the first answer may be in the fact that the Ottoman Empire existed.  The Ottoman Empire grew out of the Seljuk Empire, which dazzled the world with its art and arms just after Year 1000.  Turks received the blame for causing the First Crusade.  They invaded the city that could never be taken, Constantinople, and, well, took it.  They invaded and administered Greece and the Balkans.  While leaders such as Suleiman hammered out treaties with the King of France, other Europeans reacted with fear and indignation, as the Ottomans were quite literally at the gates of Western Europe.

In the nineteenth century, they provided Orientalists with endless fantasies of opulent harims and exotic Grand Tour destinations, some of which were relatively close to their European homes.  The “East” began in Eastern Europe and while Greece won its independence, many of the provinces we call Greece today were still Ottoman.  My grandmother, who died in 1986, was born under the age of the Ottoman Empire.  Ottoman supremacy also provided another issue still with us today:  where does Europe begin and end?  Is Constantinople, now Istanbul, considered “West” as it clearly sits on the European continent?  Who speaks for the “Western” religions in an Ottoman world?  When they revolt (and they certainly did, with Greece leading the way), do other countries support them?  What does it mean, exactly, to be “Western” and “European”?

And the Jews?  Jews were subjects of Ottoman rule, and the territory we now call Israel was Ottoman controlled.  When the Ottoman Empire collapsed and the British Mandate took on rule of the area, the question of Israel came to the table.  Ask most pro-Palestine supporters about the Ottoman Empire’s breakup, and most likely, they will stare back in ignorance.   The co-existence of Jews, Christians and Muslims in the Ottoman world,  the loose control over the Palestine-Israel territory before the war, the loss of the Ottoman Empire after the war, and the British Mandate are key to understanding the current situations, and yet, they are left out of discussion.

And Armenians?  Adolf Hitler issued this now-famous statement just before his Poland invasion:  ”

It’s a matter of indifference to me what a weak western European civilization will say about me. I have issued the command – and I’ll have anybody who utters but one word of criticism executed by a firing squad – that our war aim does not consist in reaching certain lines, but in the physical destruction of the enemy. Accordingly, I have placed my death-head formation in readiness – for the present only in the East – with orders to them to send to death mercilessly and without compassion, men, women, and children of Polish derivation and language. Only thus shall we gain the living space which we need. Who, after all, speaks today of the annihilation of the Armenians?

Turkey doesn’t speak for the Armenians, as an estimated 1.5 million were exterminated during the War and Turkey denies its action.  The Armenian Genocide, like the Scottish ethnic cleansing at British hands in the 18th century, set the stage for not only the Holocaust, but for the genocides that still exist today.  That Turkey can escape without recrimination for its actions against Armenians, and later, Greeks, opens the door to all countries hell bent on ethnic cleansing and genocide.

We’ve forgotten the Ottomans, but we’ve also forgotten pandemic.  We create doomsday scenarios regarding the anti-vax movement, but forget the effect that the flu had on the world.   The estimates are staggering:  20 to 50 million people dead worldwide in 1918.  The number of those sickened by the flu reaches 500 million by some estimates.  The trenches became incubators for the spread of this deadly disease, so the soldier who survive the horrors of war now had to face the horrors of illness.

We’ve forgotten horror. We’ve forgotten suffering.  World War I means redrawn maps, destruction of Empire (not just the Ottoman but the Russian, Qing,  and Austro-Hungarian bit the dust during its years), the humiliation of Germany, reevaluation of gender and race, the rise of the Big Three (England, France USA), new technology in warfare, rise of Communism, and — who could forget?— the mystique of the Red Baron, Mata Hari, and Gal Gadot’s Wonder Woman.  But have we forgotten, in our age of drones and battles that never reach the television screens, the horror of war?  John McCrae wrote In Flanders Fields after the funeral of a friend.  In part:

We are the Dead. Short days ago
We lived, felt dawn, saw sunset glow,
Loved and were loved, and now we lie
In Flanders fields.

This poem was used later for propaganda and recruitment, whereas its original intent was to not bring more young men to die but to commemorate those who lost their youth.  No one used Wilfred Owen’s work for recruitment:

Bent double, like old beggars under sacks,
Knock-kneed, coughing like hags, we cursed through sludge,
Till on the haunting flares we turned our backs
And towards our distant rest began to trudge.
Men marched asleep. Many had lost their boots
But limped on, blood-shod. All went lame; all blind;
Drunk with fatigue; deaf even to the hoots
Of tired, outstripped Five-Nines that dropped behind.

Gas! GAS! Quick, boys! – An ecstasy of fumbling,
Fitting the clumsy helmets just in time;
But someone still was yelling out and stumbling
And flound’ring like a man in fire or lime …
Dim, through the misty panes and thick green light,
As under I green sea, I saw him drowning.

In all my dreams, before my helpless sight,
He plunges at me, guttering, choking, drowning.

If in some smothering dreams you too could pace
Behind the wagon that we flung him in,
And watch the white eyes writhing in his face,
His hanging face, like a devil’s sick of sin;
If you could hear, at every jolt, the blood
Come gargling from the froth-corrupted lungs,
Obscene as cancer, bitter as the cud
Of vile, incurable sores on innocent tongues, —
My friend, you would not tell with such high zest
To children ardent for some desperate glory,
The old lie: Dulce et decorum est Pro patria mori.

Dulce et decorum est Pro patria mori.  How right and sweet it is to die for the Fatherland.  Ottoman Turks died for their fatherland.  Armenians, Greeks and Jews died for theirs.  Soldiers who survived the horror Owen described ended up dying of the flu  in overcrowded and unsanitary hospitals.

Horace wrote these lines during the birth of another Empire doomed to fall:  the Roman.   We may not have forgotten the Roman Empire, but we’ve certainly forgotten the reasons for its decline.

And do we remember Wilfred Owen?  What happened to him?  He was 22 when he enlisted in the armed forces during the War.  He died in battle at age 25.  Forgotten today, but remembered here…only to be forgotten once more.

 

 

Rick Riordan and the Museums of NYC

perseusSummer one day classes are starting to come to a close.  I’ve offered the usual Ancient Empires and Modern Empires, but also began a new series of classes on Rick Riordan.  We use the Met as the “real” to parallel his books on Greek and Roman adventures, and we use the Brooklyn Museum specifically for the Kane Chronicles.  Rick Riordan created a portal to all things historical and mythological for many kids, and I hope that these one off classes help build a lasting relationship with our wonderful museums, too!

Let me know if you’re interested!

Human Sacrifice, Ethnic Cleansing, and Haunted Hotels: Visiting Scotland for the First Time

I had the privilege of serving as supervisor on the Big Dog Scotland trip this year, the first trip of its kind – teens touring the Scottish Highlands and Orkneys  to uncover the many layers of Scottish history.  Like most Americans, I saw Scotland as an extension of northern England.  I prided myself as knowing more than Braveheart and Outlander could provide, yet I lacked the exposure to truly understand how different Scotland is.

To start:

-The ancient Orkneys are a historical enigma.  The Ness of Brogdar, a massive site believed to be ceremonial, predates most of the ceremonial sites in the ancient Near East.  The standing stones, cairns and dolmens predate Stonehenge and even the Old Dynasty Egyptian pyramids.  What prompted them to build ceremonial circles such as the Ring of Brogdar, the Ring of Stennis, and other sites, and then abandon them?

-The Pictish world view is recorded on their monuments, yet we’ve lost all context for their interpretation.   How many “Picts” were there?  — to the Romans, they were all “painted people” but how did they define themselves?

-The Vikings came much later.    At the ancient tomb of Meshowe, they took shelter by stooping into the tomb just as I did — there is no other way– and wrote Runic graffiti such as “This mound was raised before Ragnarr Lothbrock’s.  Her sons were brave smooth-hide men though they were”.

-Mary Queen of Scots and the Jacobite Rebellions deserve their own post– their own class, even.

-After the Battle of Culloden in 1745, Scotland witnessed one of the largest deliberate ethnic cleansings in history.   We don’t know how many Orcandians and Highlanders were massacred and starved out  in the 18th century, but we do know it that it was a British model for how to handle Native Americas, Africans, and everywhere Empire moved.

-People still identify as Jacobites.  One of the guards at Stirling Castle identified as one, and cleared up the history from what he called “Victorian claptrap”.

-Our hotel in Thurso was haunted.  No doubts.

I hope to post deeper pieces about Scotland, its wild history beyond the pubs and bagpipes, but for now, please enjoy this photo, showing sheep grazing next to a 5,000 year old supposed sacrifice site:

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Are you ready for FALL?

fall vintage

So many projects going on!  Summer is a whirlwind of planning, teaching one day classes, and brushing up on research – – and before we know it, fall will be here!   Classes will be in session soon!

What is new for fall?

-a World Geography class for teens which filled within 48 hours of advertising on homeschool email lists.  So many of my college students can’t name the world’s oceans, and have no clue about the major issues affecting our planet.  I’m excited to c0-teach this class with Tinamarie Panyard!  If you didn’t get a spot this year, do let me know –you will have first placement next year!

-The APs are back!  AP World AND AP European!

Approaches to Literature is also back!  The students elected Anna Karenina to start off the semester!

-By request, I’ve designed a class on Espionage and History! Come and explore spies from the ancients to Aldrich Ames and beyond!

Age of Revolutions!  This is the final part of the original four year cycle that started off my homeschool class program many years ago.  The class meets primarily at the Metropolitan Museum of Art.  Come learn about discovery, domination and absolutism, and watch it all explode!

-for the younger ones (7-11ish), I am offering Medieval Adventures, an inquiry based exploration of all things Medieval!

Not so into full semester classes?  Do consider…

-the ONE DAY CLASS PROGRAM!  By popular demand, I will be offering a series of one day classes on various themes.

CONTROVERSIES, the teen meetup club that allows teens to voice their views.  It’s an election year!  So much to discuss!

Songs of Ice and Fire Book Club!  Have you read the books?  Watched the show?  Come out and discuss it with other teens!

Check out the class offerings at Different Directions if none of this fits your interest! http://www.differentdirections.org

And please email me at wendyraver@hotmail.com if you have any questions!

 

 

Classes for SPRING!

For TEENS:

Age of the RENAISSANCE, Fridays at 10:30 for Middle Schoolers and 5:30 for High Schoolers, meeting primarily at the Metropolitan Museum of Art

APPROACHES TO LITERATURE, Tuesdays at 11, West Village  (inquiry based and books selected by the students from AP lists– we’ll begin with Gulliver’s Travels)

SACRED TEXTS, Thursdays at 1, West Village (secular approach, continuing with synoptic gospels and Gnostic gospels)

PARANORMAL AND HISTORY, Thursdays at 2:30, West Village

CONTROVERSIES drop in, Midtown West

For TWEENS and YOUNGER STUDENTS:

Age of the RENAISSANCE, Wednesdays at 11 and 12:30, meeting primarily at the Metropolitan Museum of Art

ANCIENT ADVENTURES, held on Wednesdays at 2:30, classroom based

** Keep looking for pop up classes!**

** AP World, US and European History Help**

Classes begin in early April (except for Ancient Adventures, which begins late March).  If interested please reply to info@independentscholarsacademy or wendyraver@hotmail.com for additional information, locations, fees, etc!

Wendy’s Homeschooling Classes for FALL!

life magazine imageHello all!  It’s been a busy year, but I am pleased to offer the following classes for fall (NYC area)!  Let me know if you’re interested by contacting me at wendyraver@hotmail.com and I will send you more specific information.  MOST OF THE CLASSES ARE FULL but still let me know if you’re interested, as plans change!
For Teens, 14 and up
-Approaches to Literature
-Sacred Texts (secular approach)
-NEW CLASS:  Paranormal and History
-NEW CLASS:  Honors/AP World History
-NEW CLASS:  Honors/AP US History
-Medieval History on Fridays
-Controversies! – a team taught class/meetup on current events and controversial issues,.  More information to come!
For Tweens-Teens:
-Medieval History (ages 10-13) held primarily at the Metropolitan Museum of Art.
For Younger Students:
-Medieval History (ages 9-12) held primarily at the Metropolitan Museum of Art
-Ancient World History:  A Trip into the Past (ages 7-10)

Israel, Palestine and the Forgotten Fate of Batis of Gaza

Gaza David Roberts

There were no Jews in Palestine before Zionism.

There are no real Palestinian people.

Modern Jews are Eastern European, with no real link to Israel.

Israel dealt with the residents of the Palestinian region peacefully and humanely in 1948.

British Mandate?

Hasmonean Dynasty?

Arab invasion?

Crusader states?

What does it matter?

 

It’s been a while since I’ve been able to revisit this little blog due to a tremendous amount of work, but a new semester and current events have inspired me to write again. What has especially inspired me to write again is the lack of historical understanding that I’ve witnessed in social media, the press, and in the arguments of many people that I hold dear. A new semester is coming soon, and I’m anxious to see what the next group of students know—or don’t know – about the history of Israel and Palestine.

The four statements above were written by educated people. All are false. All are worthy of discussion. The British Mandate is rarely mentioned in our current Israel vs. Palestine situation. No one knows what the Hasmonean Dynasty was, but they may recall the name “King Herod” from Nativity stories at Christmas. The Arab invasion…yes, the Arabs invaded the area in the 7th century, introducing Islam. They lived on the fringes and served as mercenaries, but they didn’t occupy the area that they now do. And Crusaders aren’t just a Medieval fantasy, but existed as a formidable European force which pushed out the Jews and Muslims from the area they now fight to control.

We find some of the earliest remains of human settlement in this highly contested area, and this contested area is one of the first areas where we witness human creativity: the ability to experiment with crops during the Neolithic revolution, our first stabs at artistic expression, a connection with the Holy before there was a God of Abraham, and some of our earliest burials, showing that we cared about our dead and wanted them remembered. We also find some of the earliest examples of conquest: Egypt built forts and garrisons here, the Akkadians, Assyrians and Babylonians wiped out populations here, the Sea Peoples – Greeks before there were Greeks – destroyed many towns and repopulated others.   The Persians brought back those exiled during earlier periods, including the Jews, who rebuilt their destroyed temple in Jerusalem as others rebuilt temples and shrines to their deities, gods and goddesses such as Ba’al and Astarte, who the people invoked long before they invoked Allah. Alexander the Great marched through this terrain and the Roman general Pompey annexed it for Rome, but this was ancient land in Alexander and Pompey’s day.

It does not surprise me that most people don’t understand the history of this region. It’s an old, complicated, multi-layered history. It is important to remember, however, that history is never easy, and that it is futile to bring up one event in history and not the events which precede it. Our discussions on Palestine and Israel don’t go deeply, because to go deeply means to become tangled in over 8,000 years of struggle.

It also means to admit that a good deal of history isn’t written, and even when it’s written, it’s forgotten. This is why I’m remembering Batis right now. Batis was a commander – or maybe a governor – or maybe just a eunuch who oversaw Gaza for the Persian Empire when Alexander invaded in 332 BCE. Alexander just besieged Tyre after a six month siege, and met with resistance at this heavily walled town on his way to Egypt. Batis refused to surrender Gaza. Alexander broke through the Gaza walls, massacring all of the men of Gaza and selling the children and women into slavery.

When it came to Batis, Alexander, angered by his defiance, pierced his ankles and dragged him by those pierced ankles to death.

Batis is barely a footnote in the histories of Alexander’s campaigns, and he is largely forgotten today.   To my knowledge, no one has ever chosen him as a theme for a painting or sculpture.   I’m willing to bet that even the proudest resident of Gaza doesn’t know Batis’ story.

And yet, Batis lived, died horrifically, and Gaza fell, only to rise again as a Greek polis. The Jews in the area (yes, they were here, too) would also face the onslaught of the Greeks, and their heroes would fall, and Jerusalem would fall and rise again, too.

I don’t know if remembering Batis and history will stop the carnage we witness today from all sides, but it can offer some consolation that we’ve been here before. We’ll be here again. We can, at least, remember that.

 Note:  the painting above is David Roberts’ painting of Gaza, 1839.