Forgetting World War I

I would like to believe that the current museum exhibits at the New-York Historical Society and the Metropolitan Museum of Art would keep World War I in our minds, but, sadly, we’ve forgotten.  Its veterans are dead. Monuments ignored.  Other wars, especially World War II, loom larger in our imaginations and on screen.   The tragedy of forgetting World War I affects our understanding of world events today, as so many are inextricably linked to events we struggle to understand today.

When we forget World War I, we forget that we stand on its corpses today.

Why should we remember this war from a hundred years ago?  If you are Turkish, Greek or Armenian, the first answer may be in the fact that the Ottoman Empire existed.  The Ottoman Empire grew out of the Seljuk Empire, which dazzled the world with its art and arms just after Year 1000.  Turks received the blame for causing the First Crusade.  They invaded the city that could never be taken, Constantinople, and, well, took it.  They invaded and administered Greece and the Balkans.  While leaders such as Suleiman hammered out treaties with the King of France, other Europeans reacted with fear and indignation, as the Ottomans were quite literally at the gates of Western Europe.

In the nineteenth century, they provided Orientalists with endless fantasies of opulent harims and exotic Grand Tour destinations, some of which were relatively close to their European homes.  The “East” began in Eastern Europe and while Greece won its independence, many of the provinces we call Greece today were still Ottoman.  My grandmother, who died in 1986, was born under the age of the Ottoman Empire.  Ottoman supremacy also provided another issue still with us today:  where does Europe begin and end?  Is Constantinople, now Istanbul, considered “West” as it clearly sits on the European continent?  Who speaks for the “Western” religions in an Ottoman world?  When they revolt (and they certainly did, with Greece leading the way), do other countries support them?  What does it mean, exactly, to be “Western” and “European”?

And the Jews?  Jews were subjects of Ottoman rule, and the territory we now call Israel was Ottoman controlled.  When the Ottoman Empire collapsed and the British Mandate took on rule of the area, the question of Israel came to the table.  Ask most pro-Palestine supporters about the Ottoman Empire’s breakup, and most likely, they will stare back in ignorance.   The co-existence of Jews, Christians and Muslims in the Ottoman world,  the loose control over the Palestine-Israel territory before the war, the loss of the Ottoman Empire after the war, and the British Mandate are key to understanding the current situations, and yet, they are left out of discussion.

And Armenians?  Adolf Hitler issued this now-famous statement just before his Poland invasion:  ”

It’s a matter of indifference to me what a weak western European civilization will say about me. I have issued the command – and I’ll have anybody who utters but one word of criticism executed by a firing squad – that our war aim does not consist in reaching certain lines, but in the physical destruction of the enemy. Accordingly, I have placed my death-head formation in readiness – for the present only in the East – with orders to them to send to death mercilessly and without compassion, men, women, and children of Polish derivation and language. Only thus shall we gain the living space which we need. Who, after all, speaks today of the annihilation of the Armenians?

Turkey doesn’t speak for the Armenians, as an estimated 1.5 million were exterminated during the War and Turkey denies its action.  The Armenian Genocide, like the Scottish ethnic cleansing at British hands in the 18th century, set the stage for not only the Holocaust, but for the genocides that still exist today.  That Turkey can escape without recrimination for its actions against Armenians, and later, Greeks, opens the door to all countries hell bent on ethnic cleansing and genocide.

We’ve forgotten the Ottomans, but we’ve also forgotten pandemic.  We create doomsday scenarios regarding the anti-vax movement, but forget the effect that the flu had on the world.   The estimates are staggering:  20 to 50 million people dead worldwide in 1918.  The number of those sickened by the flu reaches 500 million by some estimates.  The trenches became incubators for the spread of this deadly disease, so the soldier who survive the horrors of war now had to face the horrors of illness.

We’ve forgotten horror. We’ve forgotten suffering.  World War I means redrawn maps, destruction of Empire (not just the Ottoman but the Russian, Qing,  and Austro-Hungarian bit the dust during its years), the humiliation of Germany, reevaluation of gender and race, the rise of the Big Three (England, France USA), new technology in warfare, rise of Communism, and — who could forget?— the mystique of the Red Baron, Mata Hari, and Gal Gadot’s Wonder Woman.  But have we forgotten, in our age of drones and battles that never reach the television screens, the horror of war?  John McCrae wrote In Flanders Fields after the funeral of a friend.  In part:

We are the Dead. Short days ago
We lived, felt dawn, saw sunset glow,
Loved and were loved, and now we lie
In Flanders fields.

This poem was used later for propaganda and recruitment, whereas its original intent was to not bring more young men to die but to commemorate those who lost their youth.  No one used Wilfred Owen’s work for recruitment:

Bent double, like old beggars under sacks,
Knock-kneed, coughing like hags, we cursed through sludge,
Till on the haunting flares we turned our backs
And towards our distant rest began to trudge.
Men marched asleep. Many had lost their boots
But limped on, blood-shod. All went lame; all blind;
Drunk with fatigue; deaf even to the hoots
Of tired, outstripped Five-Nines that dropped behind.

Gas! GAS! Quick, boys! – An ecstasy of fumbling,
Fitting the clumsy helmets just in time;
But someone still was yelling out and stumbling
And flound’ring like a man in fire or lime …
Dim, through the misty panes and thick green light,
As under I green sea, I saw him drowning.

In all my dreams, before my helpless sight,
He plunges at me, guttering, choking, drowning.

If in some smothering dreams you too could pace
Behind the wagon that we flung him in,
And watch the white eyes writhing in his face,
His hanging face, like a devil’s sick of sin;
If you could hear, at every jolt, the blood
Come gargling from the froth-corrupted lungs,
Obscene as cancer, bitter as the cud
Of vile, incurable sores on innocent tongues, —
My friend, you would not tell with such high zest
To children ardent for some desperate glory,
The old lie: Dulce et decorum est Pro patria mori.

Dulce et decorum est Pro patria mori.  How right and sweet it is to die for the Fatherland.  Ottoman Turks died for their fatherland.  Armenians, Greeks and Jews died for theirs.  Soldiers who survived the horror Owen described ended up dying of the flu  in overcrowded and unsanitary hospitals.

Horace wrote these lines during the birth of another Empire doomed to fall:  the Roman.   We may not have forgotten the Roman Empire, but we’ve certainly forgotten the reasons for its decline.

And do we remember Wilfred Owen?  What happened to him?  He was 22 when he enlisted in the armed forces during the War.  He died in battle at age 25.  Forgotten today, but remembered here…only to be forgotten once more.

 

 

Rick Riordan and the Museums of NYC

perseusSummer one day classes are starting to come to a close.  I’ve offered the usual Ancient Empires and Modern Empires, but also began a new series of classes on Rick Riordan.  We use the Met as the “real” to parallel his books on Greek and Roman adventures, and we use the Brooklyn Museum specifically for the Kane Chronicles.  Rick Riordan created a portal to all things historical and mythological for many kids, and I hope that these one off classes help build a lasting relationship with our wonderful museums, too!

Let me know if you’re interested!

Human Sacrifice, Ethnic Cleansing, and Haunted Hotels: Visiting Scotland for the First Time

I had the privilege of serving as supervisor on the Big Dog Scotland trip this year, the first trip of its kind – teens touring the Scottish Highlands and Orkneys  to uncover the many layers of Scottish history.  Like most Americans, I saw Scotland as an extension of northern England.  I prided myself as knowing more than Braveheart and Outlander could provide, yet I lacked the exposure to truly understand how different Scotland is.

To start:

-The ancient Orkneys are a historical enigma.  The Ness of Brogdar, a massive site believed to be ceremonial, predates most of the ceremonial sites in the ancient Near East.  The standing stones, cairns and dolmens predate Stonehenge and even the Old Dynasty Egyptian pyramids.  What prompted them to build ceremonial circles such as the Ring of Brogdar, the Ring of Stennis, and other sites, and then abandon them?

-The Pictish world view is recorded on their monuments, yet we’ve lost all context for their interpretation.   How many “Picts” were there?  — to the Romans, they were all “painted people” but how did they define themselves?

-The Vikings came much later.    At the ancient tomb of Meshowe, they took shelter by stooping into the tomb just as I did — there is no other way– and wrote Runic graffiti such as “This mound was raised before Ragnarr Lothbrock’s.  Her sons were brave smooth-hide men though they were”.

-Mary Queen of Scots and the Jacobite Rebellions deserve their own post– their own class, even.

-After the Battle of Culloden in 1745, Scotland witnessed one of the largest deliberate ethnic cleansings in history.   We don’t know how many Orcandians and Highlanders were massacred and starved out  in the 18th century, but we do know it that it was a British model for how to handle Native Americas, Africans, and everywhere Empire moved.

-People still identify as Jacobites.  One of the guards at Stirling Castle identified as one, and cleared up the history from what he called “Victorian claptrap”.

-Our hotel in Thurso was haunted.  No doubts.

I hope to post deeper pieces about Scotland, its wild history beyond the pubs and bagpipes, but for now, please enjoy this photo, showing sheep grazing next to a 5,000 year old supposed sacrifice site:

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As we wait to see if history will repeat itself, do not forget this Executive Order, 75 Years Ago today


japs-keep-moving

 

Executive Order No. 9066

The President

Executive Order

Authorizing the Secretary of War to Prescribe Military Areas

Whereas the successful prosecution of the war requires every possible protection against espionage and against sabotage to national-defense material, national-defense premises, and national-defense utilities as defined in Section 4, Act of April 20, 1918, 40 Stat. 533, as amended by the Act of November 30, 1940, 54 Stat. 1220, and the Act of August 21, 1941, 55 Stat. 655 (U.S.C., Title 50, Sec. 104);

Now, therefore, by virtue of the authority vested in me as President of the United States, and Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy, I hereby authorize and direct the Secretary of War, and the Military Commanders whom he may from time to time designate, whenever he or any designated Commander deems such action necessary or desirable, to prescribe military areas in such places and of such extent as he or the appropriate Military Commander may determine, from which any or all persons may be excluded, and with respect to which, the right of any person to enter, remain in, or leave shall be subject to whatever restrictions the Secretary of War or the appropriate Military Commander may impose in his discretion. The Secretary of War is hereby authorized to provide for residents of any such area who are excluded therefrom, such transportation, food, shelter, and other accommodations as may be necessary, in the judgment of the Secretary of War or the said Military Commander, and until other arrangements are made, to accomplish the purpose of this order. The designation of military areas in any region or locality shall supersede designations of prohibited and restricted areas by the Attorney General under the Proclamations of December 7 and 8, 1941, and shall supersede the responsibility and authority of the Attorney General under the said Proclamations in respect of such prohibited and restricted areas.

I hereby further authorize and direct the Secretary of War and the said Military Commanders to take such other steps as he or the appropriate Military Commander may deem advisable to enforce compliance with the restrictions applicable to each Military area herein above authorized to be designated, including the use of Federal troops and other Federal Agencies, with authority to accept assistance of state and local agencies.

I hereby further authorize and direct all Executive Departments, independent establishments and other Federal Agencies, to assist the Secretary of War or the said Military Commanders in carrying out this Executive Order, including the furnishing of medical aid, hospitalization, food, clothing, transportation, use of land, shelter, and other supplies, equipment, utilities, facilities, and services.

This order shall not be construed as modifying or limiting in any way the authority heretofore granted under Executive Order No. 8972, dated December 12, 1941, nor shall it be construed as limiting or modifying the duty and responsibility of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, with respect to the investigation of alleged acts of sabotage or the duty and responsibility of the Attorney General and the Department of Justice under the Proclamations of December 7 and 8, 1941, prescribing regulations for the conduct and control of alien enemies, except as such duty and responsibility is superseded by the designation of military areas hereunder.

Franklin D. Roosevelt

The White House,

February 19, 1942.

[F.R. Doc. 42–1563; Filed, February 21, 1942; 12:51 p.m.]

Source: Executive Order No. 9066, February 19, 1942.

Are you ready for FALL?

fall vintage

So many projects going on!  Summer is a whirlwind of planning, teaching one day classes, and brushing up on research – – and before we know it, fall will be here!   Classes will be in session soon!

What is new for fall?

-a World Geography class for teens which filled within 48 hours of advertising on homeschool email lists.  So many of my college students can’t name the world’s oceans, and have no clue about the major issues affecting our planet.  I’m excited to c0-teach this class with Tinamarie Panyard!  If you didn’t get a spot this year, do let me know –you will have first placement next year!

-The APs are back!  AP World AND AP European!

Approaches to Literature is also back!  The students elected Anna Karenina to start off the semester!

-By request, I’ve designed a class on Espionage and History! Come and explore spies from the ancients to Aldrich Ames and beyond!

Age of Revolutions!  This is the final part of the original four year cycle that started off my homeschool class program many years ago.  The class meets primarily at the Metropolitan Museum of Art.  Come learn about discovery, domination and absolutism, and watch it all explode!

-for the younger ones (7-11ish), I am offering Medieval Adventures, an inquiry based exploration of all things Medieval!

Not so into full semester classes?  Do consider…

-the ONE DAY CLASS PROGRAM!  By popular demand, I will be offering a series of one day classes on various themes.

CONTROVERSIES, the teen meetup club that allows teens to voice their views.  It’s an election year!  So much to discuss!

Songs of Ice and Fire Book Club!  Have you read the books?  Watched the show?  Come out and discuss it with other teens!

Check out the class offerings at Different Directions if none of this fits your interest! http://www.differentdirections.org

And please email me at wendyraver@hotmail.com if you have any questions!

 

 

Classes for SPRING!

For TEENS:

Age of the RENAISSANCE, Fridays at 10:30 for Middle Schoolers and 5:30 for High Schoolers, meeting primarily at the Metropolitan Museum of Art

APPROACHES TO LITERATURE, Tuesdays at 11, West Village  (inquiry based and books selected by the students from AP lists– we’ll begin with Gulliver’s Travels)

SACRED TEXTS, Thursdays at 1, West Village (secular approach, continuing with synoptic gospels and Gnostic gospels)

PARANORMAL AND HISTORY, Thursdays at 2:30, West Village

CONTROVERSIES drop in, Midtown West

For TWEENS and YOUNGER STUDENTS:

Age of the RENAISSANCE, Wednesdays at 11 and 12:30, meeting primarily at the Metropolitan Museum of Art

ANCIENT ADVENTURES, held on Wednesdays at 2:30, classroom based

** Keep looking for pop up classes!**

** AP World, US and European History Help**

Classes begin in early April (except for Ancient Adventures, which begins late March).  If interested please reply to info@independentscholarsacademy or wendyraver@hotmail.com for additional information, locations, fees, etc!

Wendy’s Homeschooling Classes for FALL!

life magazine imageHello all!  It’s been a busy year, but I am pleased to offer the following classes for fall (NYC area)!  Let me know if you’re interested by contacting me at wendyraver@hotmail.com and I will send you more specific information.  MOST OF THE CLASSES ARE FULL but still let me know if you’re interested, as plans change!
For Teens, 14 and up
-Approaches to Literature
-Sacred Texts (secular approach)
-NEW CLASS:  Paranormal and History
-NEW CLASS:  Honors/AP World History
-NEW CLASS:  Honors/AP US History
-Medieval History on Fridays
-Controversies! – a team taught class/meetup on current events and controversial issues,.  More information to come!
For Tweens-Teens:
-Medieval History (ages 10-13) held primarily at the Metropolitan Museum of Art.
For Younger Students:
-Medieval History (ages 9-12) held primarily at the Metropolitan Museum of Art
-Ancient World History:  A Trip into the Past (ages 7-10)